Balinese Hindu Temple is one of the holy places used by Hindus in Bali to worship God in all his manifestations, in bali name of temple called with name "Pura", while the temple is built based on certain theological-philosophical concepts to become a place as well as a center for worship orientation. The form of the temple is located in an open area with a courtyard that can be used as a place for prayer. As for the temple in the Hindu view as the concept of a "holy place" which has a broad meaning, namely a building and a "place" that has been "purified" through a purification ceremony, thus making the place sacred both worldly and spiritually. And therefore when visiting a temple, it is expected to maintain ethics in entering the temple in order to maintain its purity so that the temple remains holy and Hindus can feel comfortable when worshiping. There are many forms of the temple, and with various forms but have one goal, namely as a place to give thanks to God by praying and offering offerings.
All You Need To Know About Balinese Hindu Temple
Meaning Name Pura
Temple in Bali is called by the name "Pura" which comes from Sanskrit which means "-pur, -puri, -pura, -puram, -pore" which means gate and can also be interpreted as Angkasa Pura which means sky gate. In subsequent developments on the island of Bali, the name of the temple became very special as a place of worship, and don't confuse it with the term "Puri" which has a very different meaning, namely the name of the residence for kings and nobles. Before being known as Pura, temples in Bali were called Hyang, Kahyangan or Parhyangan, and over time the name Pura was better known as a place of worship for Hindus in Bali. So the word pura in Bali which means a holy place used in praying and getting closer to God so that it can improve the quality of human beings as individual beings and social beings, and it is also hoped that by praying in temples we can get to know each other between fellow people so that internal harmony of Hindus can be materialized achieved.
Types of Temples in Bali
The temples in Bali as a holy place for Hindus to carry out worship have several categories of temples, although they have many categories but have the same goal, namely to ask God for physical and spiritual safety, and temples in Bali we can group into 2 parts, namely Special Temples and the Public Temple, which can be seen from where the temple is located. When talking about the types and categories of temples, there are many types and categories of temples that are aimed at a certain group, worshiping a certain god and also general temples that are universal in nature, that is, all people who want to pray, with these many categories and types, it is not wrong if the island of Bali is said to be an island with a thousand temples, because there are indeed many temples in Bali based on the type, purpose and function of the temple The types dan categories of the temples in Bali are as follows:
- Special Temples: The special temples are temples that are only functioned for one thing, A place of worship for Hindus whose purpose is to worship a type of god who resides in the temple, and is addressed to a certain type of group or specifically to a family. A temple that can only be visited by one group or family who maintains and cares for the temple and also a special temple to worship a certain god for specific purposes and functions. The special temples category can be seen below the details
- Family Temple: It is a temple owned by each Hindu family, and is usually located in the house of each head of the family where offerings are offered every day to ask for physical and spiritual safety. Family Temple for small families in the form of Sangah Kemulan, Taksu, Pengijeng and Penunggun Karang buildings, while for large families there is Sanggah Kawitan which is cared for by the whole family to ask ancestors and with God with his manifestations for safety, There are several types of family temples in Balinese Hindus
- Sanggah: Is a place of worship for Hindus in one of the families carried by one or more families who have the closest lineage, and this temple is found in every house of the head of the family which is used to worship ancestors and God and its manifestations, this temple is private, so not just anyone can enter the temple without permission from the head of the family, only family members can enter this temple area
- Dadia Temple: is a place of worship carried by one lineage in one village, you could say the Dadia Temple is the upper level of the sanggah, where families who are still the same lineage even though they are married and live differently they will pray at the temple dadia to worship ancestors and gods and their manifestations and to be cared for by families who are still of the same lineage
- Pedharman Temple: is a place of worship that is still carried by one lineage in a broad scope, which means that if in a family village there is still one lineage even though they live in various villages and regencies they will come here to worship their ancestors and their manifestations . You could say this Pedharman temple is the top level in the family temple structure, this temple is cared for by all family members who are still of the same lineage.
- Swagina Temple: Is a temple that functions and is useful for certain communities that are adapted to the procession of daily life such as farmers, traders and fishermen. Which means that temples are devoted to certain professions by worshiping gods who reside in temples that have certain functions that are in accordance with the profession that the community is involved in. There are several types of swagina temples that can be distinguished based on the profession of the people, for an explanation, see below:
- Temple Bedugul / Ulun Suwi / Ulun Danu / Subak : A temple aimed at farmers in carrying out their profession as farmers by worshiping Ista Dewata as the God of Prosperity who is expected to provide sufficient water for agriculture by removing water from the earth and also raining so that agricultural land becomes fertile and the life expectancy of farming becomes prosperous
- Melanting Temple: A temple dedicated to traders who worship Dewa Kuwera as a giver of welfare for Hindus who work as traders in the hope that they will be given instructions and guidance in carrying out their profession as traders and are expected to get good luck to improve their standard of living so they can support their families
- Segara Temple: Is a temple dedicated for people who work as fishermen by worshiping Dewa Baruna as the god of the ocean so that when fishermen go to sea to be safe on the journey and get lots of fish catches so they can meet the needs of the family from the catch that will be sold to support their families
- Public Temple: Is one type of temple that is general or universal in nature that can be used as a place of worship by Hindus without seeing class, ethnicity and profession of the people. So this public temple can be visited and worshiped by people from all over in Bali with one goal, namely to ask for safety and welfare to Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa as the god of Hindus in Bali and also worship its various manifestations so that life can be very harmonious. The general types of temples are as follows:
- Kahyangan Tiga Temple: It is a temple that is cared for by residents of a village that functions as a place of worship for the three manifestations of God, namely Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva by making a different temple for each manifestation. In a village in Bali, there must be these three heavenly temples consisting of Desa Pura, Puseh Temple and Dalem Temple, each of which worships a manifestation of God with their respective functions.
- Desa Temple : Is a place of worship to worship the manifestation of God as Lord Brahma who has a function as the creator of the universe and its contents with the magic of Dewi Saraswati who is the Goddess of Science. With the characteristic of the building in the form of a large bale and a Padmasana which also depends on the local traditional culture, which is usually located at village center, also serves as a venue for village consultative meeting
- Puseh Temple : Is a place of worship for Hindus found in every village in Bali which was built to worship Lord Vishnu with its function as the preserver of the contents of the universe with the magic of Dewi Sri as a symbol of prosperity, with the characteristic of a temple building in the form of a meru overlapping seven and also in the form of a meru. others depending on local village customs and culture, An example of a Puseh temple that we can see is Puseh Batuan Temple
- Dalem Temple: Is a place of worship for Hindus in Bali which is made to worship Lord Shiva with its function as a smelter or pralina nature and its contents with the magic of Goddess Durga, the hallmark of the temple building is shaped like a gedong, and this pura dalem is also often referred to by tourists as the Temple of Death, where people who die but have not done the cremation ceremony, then their spirit will reside in this pura dalem
- Dang Kahyangan Temple: Is one of the ancestral temples, namely Dang Hyang Nirarta who when he came to Bali made a place of worship to worship God and his manifestations, while the Dang heavenly temple includes Pura Pulaki which is located in the western area of the island of Bali, Yeh Jeruk Temple, Pekendungan Temple, Dalem Sakenan Temple, Tirta Empul Temple, Penataran Sasih Temple, Dasar Temple and Kehen Temple. This temple is very beautiful with its unique location and characteristics that make this temple has a charm of incomparable beauty
- Sad Kahyangan Temple: Is a place of worship for Hindus in Bali with its function to worship Ista Dewata which is spread all over the six wind direction of the island of Bali. The Sad Kahyangan temple consists of six big temples of heaven which are very sacred by Hindus in Bali and are also relics of ancient ancestors or by spiritual leaders in the past and have been preserved until now. This temple belongs to the ranks of the oldest temples and is sanctified by Hindus in Bali. The six temples belonging to Sad Kahyangan Temple are Besakih Temple, Batur Temple, Lempuyang Temple, Goa Lawah Temple, Uluwatu Temple, Batukaru Temple and Pura Pusering Jagat Temple.
- Jagatnatha Temple: Is a place of worship made for the public so that Hindus who are far from home can pray at the Jagatnatha Temple, and can function as an intermediary temple to the big temples on the island of Bali and used by various groups, castes and professions who come to Bali. Jagatnatha Temple to pray. In essence, the temple also functions as a unifying tool for people from various groups. we can take one example is the Jagatnatha Temple which is in the center of Denpasar city
Balinese Family Temple
Temple Structure in General
The temple, which is a place of worship for Hindus, has a layout that cannot be built arbitrarily, and the concept of building this temple uses the Tri Mandala concept in which the temple yard is divided into three, namely: the outer courtyard, the middle courtyard and the inner courtyard. So, to build a temple, you can't just build it, you need a layout plan and building space so that it will create harmony in worship, while the parts of the tri mandala are as follows:
- Nista Mandala: is a temple courtyard which is located on the outside of the temple architecture, this part is a slanderous or dirty and not sacred part of a temple and anyone can enter this part. The building in Nista Mandala has Bale Kulkul as a place for kentongan, Bale Wantilan as a place for art performances, Bale Pewaregan as a kitchen.
- Madya Mandala: is the temple courtyard which is located in the middle and also called the middle jaba, this part is the sacred part of the temple building where there are buildings such as Bale Agung which is a long hall, Balai Pagongan which is used as a place to store gamelan and there is also Bale Storage used as a place to store valuables in temples
- Utama Mandala: Is the temple courtyard which is located on the inside and this page is the holiest page among other pages, because here there is the main temple used by Hindus to pray, in this section the people must really focus on facing Sang Hyang Widhi by giving up worldly desires.
Basically if you enter a temple building, you are not directly in the main area of a temple, but you will go through the outer courtyard first, the central courtyard and the inner courtyard. If you want to see the Tri Mandala concept, you can visit Taman Ayun Temple which is a village temple from Mengwi village that adheres to the Tri Mandala system, you can see the outer courtyard which is very beautiful, the middle courtyard and also the inner courtyard. And it is expected that if you enter a holy place, you are expected to behave politely and dress politely to respect Hindus who do worship
Rules for Entering the Temple
The temple is one of the sacred buildings used by Hindus to worship God and his manifestations, and the temple is cared for and guarded by Hindus who live around the temple, and it is a must for Hindus to maintain the sanctity of the temple in order to avoid negative things. that can disturb the harmony in this life. The temple which is a holy place for Hindus has several prohibitions and taboos when they want to enter the temple area, because the temple is classified as a holy place and things that are dirty will pollute the sanctity of the temple, so it is expected that tourists who want to visit the temple to comply the system is published in the temple area, and some taboos that do not allow tourists to enter the temple area.
- Menstruating Women: For women who are still menstruating, it is strictly forbidden to enter the temple area, menstruation contains blood which will pollute the sanctity of the temple, so it is hoped that tourists who are menstruating do not visit the temple
- After Childbirth: For women who have given birth are considered to be still in a state of displeasure / unlucky, then it is not allowed to enter the temple area because it will cause the sanctity of the temple to be polluted, so it is advisable to refrain from going to the temple first
- Family Dies: For devotees or tourists who have a deceased family (within 3 days) they are considered to be in a state of displeasure and can cause the sanctity of the temple to decrease, so it is advisable to skip the period before visiting the temple
- Immodestly Dressed: A temple is a sacred place where to enter the temple area it is necessary to wear traditional Balinese clothes such as sarong and shawl to respect the sanctity of the temple, and may not wear revealing clothes.
- Maintain Behavior: When in the temple area, tourists are expected to maintain their behavior such as not being noisy when there are Hindus praying, not standing in front of people praying and also other disrespectful behavior - others
Spiritual Tour Visit Balinese Hindu Temple
Temples are sacred places for Hindus to worship ancestors and gods and their manifestations. Bali is not wrong if it is said to be an island with a thousand temples, because it is true that in every Hindu's house there is a temple and in every corner of the wind there is a large holy temple. If you want to see the beauty of sacred places in Bali which are full of history, you can take a spiritual journey to visit this place, we offer a Bali Temple Tour package that you can take and see ancient temples with a very unique history of each temple. visited, at a very affordable price and of course a very satisfying service will make your spiritual journey complete. An experience that you may not forget to find out more about the customs, culture, beliefs and places of worship of Hindus in Bali. A religious experience that is very thick with spiritual experiences.